- Common Settings
When designing web pages it is important to have at least a basic understanding of the language in which they are written. The following is a brief description of some of the more commonly used commands in HTML.
The first thing to put on your web page is a title. The title is what will show up in the very top of the window. Let's say that your title is going to be "NetINS Web Page", you would type:
<title>NetINS Web Page</title>
In HTML, every command is surrounded by <'s, and >'s. And in most commands, you need to tell the web browser when to end this command. You do this by putting a back slash (/) in front of the ending command, as in above. Since HTML isn't case sensitive, <title> is the same as <TITLE>, which is the same as <TiTLe>. Next you need to decide what you want to put on your page. Text, links, graphics, and text fields, are just a few ideas
HTML has six levels of headings, numbered 1 through 6, with 1 being the largest. Headings are displayed in larger, or smaller fonts, and usually in bold. If you wanted to type "Hello", this is what you would type for each heading, and what the outcome is:
Whenever you have more than a sentence of writing, you should have paragraphs.
To make a paragraph of "This is a web page. How do you like what I've done? Please e-mail me with any suggestions at this email@example.com", type:
<P>This is a web page. How do you like what I've done? Please e-mail me with any suggestions at this firstname.lastname@example.org.</P>
The outcome is:
This is a web page. How do you like what I've done? Please e-mail me with any suggestions at this email@example.com
There are two common types of lists that you can make in HTML, dotted, and numbered. To make a dotted list of: red, orange, green, blue, purple, black, and brown, type:
The result is:
To make a numbered list of: red, orange, green, blue, and purple, black, and brown type:
The result looks like:
Forced Line Breaks
There are many cases in which you want to end typing on one line, and start on the next. To do this, you can use a simple HTML command. This is one of the few commands that you don't have to put an ending command on. Let's say that you wanted to say, "Hello, how are you?" but with each word on a separate line. All you have to type is:
The outcome is:
You may want to format some of your text differently than others using text styles. There are several types of styles of text that you can use: bold, italic, underline, strikeout, superscript, subscript, teletype, and blinking text are examples. To do these styles, surround your text with the following commands:
<b>, </b> for bold
When you make a link, you are making colored text or even a graphic. When somebody clicks on this text, it will take him or her to another web page, or possibly a certain section of a web page. Let's say that you wanted to make a link from your web page, to the netINS homepage. The URL of netINS is: http://www.netins.net
To do this, you would type:
<a href="http://www.netins.net">This is a link to netINS!</a>
The result would be:
Sometimes, you might want to have a link that will take you further down a page, or to a certain section of another page. To do this you need to do two things; first is to make the link and second is to make where the link will lead.
Note: You cannot make links to specific sections within a different document unless you have write permission to the coded source of that document or that document already contains in-document named links.
Most people like to have a link on their web page that automatically sends e-mail to an address. If you want to do this and your e-mail address is firstname.lastname@example.org, type:
<A href="mailto:email@example.com">Send me Email! </a>
Here is the result of typing this: Send me Email!
Putting Images on A Page
Almost every web page has some sort of picture. I would highly recommend that you have at least one picture on your page.
To display a graphic, all you have to do is type in the filename. If you didn't make separate directories for graphics and pages, then you just need to type the graphic's name. <IMG SRC="pic.gif">
Alternate Text for Images
Some Web browsers cannot display images. Some users turn off image loading even if their software can display images (especially if they have a slow connection). HTML provides a command to tell readers what they are missing on your pages. This also provides a text pop-up on some browsers, telling the viewer what the picture is. The "ALT" attribute lets you specify text to be displayed. For example:
<IMG SRC="pic.gif" ALT="How to make a web page">
In this example, "pic.gif" is the picture. With graphics-capable viewers that have image loading turned on, you see the graphic. With a non-graphic browser or if image loading is turned off, the words "How to make a web page" are shown in your window. You should try to include alternate text for each image you use in your document as it is a courtesy for your readers.
Background, Text, and Link Color
On most pages you want to have a specific color for the background, text, unvisited links, visited links, and active links. In order to do this you need to find the code number for the specific color that you are looking for. http://www.htmlhelp.com/cgi-bin/color.cgi has a large list of code numbers. Below is how you would display them in your page.
Note: Type these ONLY right below your title.
Note: You must have the "#" sign before the actual code
<body bgcolor="#code"> for background color
You can also string two or more of these commands together:
Instead of having a solid color as a background, you might want to have one graphic that repeats over and over to create a background. The text that you would type in for a background called "bk.gif" would be: